Dual and second citizenship: what’s the difference between the notions
Apply for British dual citizenship. The main difference between second and dual citizenship lies in the existence of agreements between countries and in how the state considers the status of a bipatride. A country can consider a person only its citizen, even if such a person has two passports, or recognize his rights and obligations in relation to another country.
What is dual and second citizenship
Dual citizenship implies that a person has passports of two countries, and both states recognize the rights and obligations of a person in relation to each country at the official level. People with dual citizenship can choose in which country to serve in the military, and their children receive two passports at birth.
Dual citizenship is based on bilateral agreements between states. For example, such agreements exist between Spain and its former colonies: Peru, Chile, Paraguay, Nicaragua, Guatemala, Bolivia, Ecuador, Costa Rica, Honduras, the Dominican Republic, Argentina and Colombia.
To obtain dual citizenship, certain conditions are to be met. For example:
- child’s parents have citizenship of different countries;
- the state border of the country has changed;
- a child is adopted by a foreigner;
- a person received citizenship by naturalization or repatriation.
Second citizenship implies that a person has passports of different countries. At the same time, countries do not recognize the rights and obligations of a bipatride in relation to other states. Each country considers a bipatride only as its own subject. Public authorities may not be aware of a person’s second citizenship if the law does not require notification of its existence. If there is such a legal requirement, a fine or criminal liability could be imposed for failing to notify the government about a second citizenship.In most cases, citizenship of any other country will be considered the second. A passport can be obtained in different ways: for example, by participating in investment programs, naturalization or marriage.
Advantages and disadvantages of dual citizenship
A person with dual citizenship has all the rights of citizens of both states, but he cannot use them at the same time: they work only in the country where he lives. For example, a bipatride will not enjoy benefits in Spain if he lives in Argentina.
The advantages of being a bipatride include the right to travel between the two countries without visas, the ability to do business in both countries. A person with dual citizenship can apply for diplomatic assistance to the missions of both countries while in a third country.
Civil obligations remain in relation to both states and take effect in the country of residence. For example, a citizen is obliged to pay taxes and serve on conscription in the army of the country where he lives. However, some responsibilities do not need to be fulfilled in both countries.A man with dual citizenship of Spain and Argentina lived in Spain, therefore he served in the Spanish army and paid taxes to the budget of this country. Having moved to Argentina, he begins to pay taxes there, but his military service no longer needs to be served.
Advantages and disadvantages of second citizenship
A second citizenship can give advantages that bipatrides with dual citizenship do not have. For example, travel without a visa to the Schengen countries, the UK and the USA, or choose one of the EU countries for life.
Cosmopolitans receive a second citizenship in order to:
- travel freely around the world;
- to work abroad;
- have a “plan B” in case of instability in the country of residence;
- provide children with quality education and the opportunity to get a job in another country;
- enjoy social guarantees in both countries;
- open accounts and business abroad;
- optimize taxes.
The disadvantages of second citizenship are due to the fact that each of the countries recognizes bipatride only as its own citizen. So, in some cases, a person with a second citizenship will have to serve in the army in both countries.A person with a second citizenship will not be able to hold high government posts. For example, they are usually not allowed to work for the prosecutor’s office, be members of the Government, or gain access to state secrets. .................... ............................................................... ......................................