German Drivers license
German Drivers license “Führerschein” is a governmental privilege given to those who request a license for any of the categories they desire. It is required for every type of motorized vehicle with the exception of the smallest mopeds below 50 cm³, with a speed limit of 25 km/h, as well as motorized bicycles. (Even for these, there is a minimum age of 15 years and a small mandatory driving school course). The types of licenses one may obtain are the same in all the European Economic Area. See European driving license. The minimum age to obtain a driving license is: 16 years for a restricted motorcycle up to 125 cm³, 17 years for a car with a legal guardian, 18 years for unrestricted car and 21 years for buses and cargo vehicles.
Obtaining a driving license
The German driving license can be obtained after finishing driving school and passing a two-stage test, the theory test and road test. Before being allowed to take these tests an eye-exam must have been performed and a first-aid course (usually lasts 8 hours) completed.
The learner driver’s training usually takes place in legally authorized and mostly privately-owned, for-profit driving schools. The driving school handles all the necessary paperwork for the students, such as: applying for a license, registering for tests etc. German Drivers license
The theoretical part of the education comprises lessons at the driving school, held by legally authorized driving instructors, typically in the evening. The content and number of the lessons is set by law and depending on the type of license the student wishes to acquire; a different number of lessons has to be attended. Remarkably enough, a student does not have to attend different lessons, they could theoretically attend the same lesson several times to meet the criteria. Lessons are divided into general knowledge about road rules that anyone studying for any license might attend and specialized lessons for certain types of vehicles. To prepare for the written theory test, students usually obtain a study package from the driving school which can consist of software programmed, textbooks and sample exam papers. Schools usually take responsibility for their student’s success and thus keep track of class attendance and hand out sample exams for practicing. The theory test is a multiple-choice test consisting of randomized questions from a published guidebook. Thus the questions and correct answers can be studied in advance.
Practical training also takes place with driving school instructors. Specially labelled and fitted vehicles are provided by the driving school. Cars are usually dual control (feature extra mirrors and pedals for the instructor so that they can take control of the vehicle in dangerous situations) since driving and parking maneuvers are taught on public roads. For motorcycles, the student operates the motorcycle on their own with a driving instructor following in another vehicle and giving instruction via radio. A certain number of practical and technical lessons has to be completed again depending on the type of vehicle. Obligatory lessons include a minimum number of lessons each driving on: the motorway Autobahn; rural areas, and in the dark. The actual number of lessons a student completes varies with individual skill. As the most difficult part of the driving test is usually urban driving, most lessons actually take place there, even though there is no mandated minimum for that. German Drivers license
If a student wishes to be tested in a car with an automatic transmission and sits the road test in such a car, a code or note will be added to the license and the holder will only be permitted drive cars with an automatic transmission. A test passed on a manual transmission car also gives qualification to drive either manual or automatic.
Theoretical and practical training may be commenced at the same or different times. Some driving schools may insist a student attend a certain number of lessons before giving out appointments for driving lessons.
Both exams are held by an authorized inspector who visits the driving school for this purpose. Students must pass the theory test before sitting the road test, with no more than a twelve month gap between the two. During the road test, the driving instructor is present in the car with the assisting features of the driving school car deactivated or connected to audio signals and a warning light (if the instructor has to intervene, the test will result in failure.)
After each exam, results are immediately given to the students. In case of the road test, if the student meets all the required criteria, the license is handed over by the inspector. Should the student, for any reason, not be allowed to hold the license at the time of a successful test (for example because he has not yet reached the minimum age), the licence will be sent to the Kraftfahrzeug-Zulassungsbehörde (compare DMV DVLA) of the student’s place of residence where it can be picked up as soon as the person becomes eligible. There are limits on the frequency and the time elapsed before failed tests can be reattempted. Buy German Drivers license
The failure rate for driving tests in 2011 was 28%. Automobile associations have given the opinion that this is due to the low quality of the education at driving schools as it benefits their income if students take additional lessons after failing.
For cars, people aged seventeen do not get a standard driving license after passing all required tests. Instead a permission slip that only allows for driving a car under the supervision of persons meeting certain criteria as stated on the permission slip. The actual driving license becomes available upon the person’s eighteenth birthday.
The Driving license card is valid for 15 years, and is replaced with a new card when it expires. Before 19 January 2013, the driving license card was valid without time limit. There is a decision that cards issued before that date expire on 19 January 2033. Although the driving license is an official document issued by authorities, it has very limited validity as an identity card.
The rules for getting a German driver’s license vary greatly depending where you come from, with even individual US states having different agreements with Germany.
Getting a German driving license can be tricky for expats, but Jeff and Karen Smith had done their homework, and they were on top of it. They knew their Michigan license s were only valid in Germany for six months, giving them that long to exchange them for their Führerschein, so they went about taking care of business soon after they arrived.
But things didn’t quite go as planned. To start, the first aid classes they were told they’d need to take in order to exchange license s weren’t offered until near the end of their six-month window. That was okay – they could finish them and the rest of the paperwork before the deadline. And the required eye exams took five minutes. So far, so good.
Until they tried to apply for the license s. One office sent them here, another there. Two weeks, a dozen trips to half-a-dozen offices and a couple of hundred euro later, they still hadn’t got their Führerschein, the first aid courses turned out to be unnecessary, and their Michigan license s, mailed between offices, went missing.
Speaking of the Führerschein fiasco, Karen puts it mildly: “I had no idea it could be this hard.”
Well, it doesn’t have to be. I live in Baden-Württemberg, and to trade my Colorado licence for a Führerschein all it took was EUR 35 and two trips (one to apply, the other to pick up my new license ) to the Bürgeramt (sorry, Jeff and Karen).
Different countries, different rules
So why was I so lucky? Good question, frustrating answer. Like with many bureaucratic procedures in Germany, what you need to do to get your Führerschein depends on where you’re from and where you live; although traffic law is federal and not state law, each office has its own approach to handling the law.
EU citizens read no further; your license is unconditionally valid in Germany. Americans, Canadians, and South Africans? Relax; in most cases you can trade license s easily. Everybody else: You’ll need to do it the hard way, but take heart – you can do it (mostly) in English.
But let’s start with the universals. Wherever you come from, you can drive legally in Germany with your home license for six months after settling in Germany. And if you’re certain you’ll stay here less than a year, you can petition at your local Führerscheinstelle to extend that period to cover your stay. Just bring a certified translation of your home license (see below) and proof of your intended length of residency; like a plane ticket, or a work contract.
Exchanging your license for a German driver’s license
If you’ll be staying longer than a year, though, you need a Führerschein to drive in Germany after your first six months in country. If your home country (or American state) has a license exchange agreement with Germany, you have up to three years to swap – after that, you’ve got to do it like the Germans do, from scratch.
Canadians and South Africans can trade with ease. So can many Americans (but not from all US states), a detailed list of these privileged countries/states, so-called “Anlage 11 FeV (Listenstaaten)” can be found here: www.fahrerlaubnisrecht.de.
Please note that if you want to get your foreign drivers license (from a non-EU country) accepted in Germany you need to prove to have lived for at least 185 days without interruption in the country that issued your driver’s license during the time the license has been issued.
Exchanging your home license for a German one is usually straight-forward. But to minimize difficulty, Karen Smith advises, “Call the exact office that will issue your license to find out exactly what you need to bring, and get the name of the person you talk to.” Try the uniform number for public authorities when you aren’t sure of which office to connect with.
Sounds obvious, but sometimes several offices will have a hand in the exchange, and in Karen’s case, each one she contacted gave her a different set of requirements. Among the most common are an eye exam (just about any optical shop can do it, for about EUR 5), and an official translation of your home license (ADAC translations are widely accepted – the Smiths paid EUR 72 for two).
Also, to avoid costly misunderstandings, Karen further advises that when you apply for your license , “Bring a German.”
Generally, when you trade your home license for a Führerschein, the Führerescheinstelle will keep your home license . In some cases, though, you can keep your home license for a small fee. If you’d like to keep it, you should mention that when you first apply for your Führerschein.
Good news and bad news
Moving on to the less fortunate, Australians and New Zealanders; good news, bad news time. Good news: negotiations between Germany’s government and yours for similar exchange agreements are underway. Bad news: that doesn’t help you at all right now. Read on.
To get your Führerschein, you’ll need to take written and practical exams, and maybe some driving lessons – depending on your existing driving skills, too. Fortunately, you can do most of it in English.
Should you have to do your diving test again, negotiate with the driving school that you only take the mandatory minimal number of lessons! When a teacher does not come up with significant reasons why you might have to take more, then go to another school (Fahrschule).
Please note that effective 1 July 2011 the minimum age for driving in Germany with a foreign drivers license is 18 years.
One step at a time
For those who only have to take the tests, “You generally have to allow two months for the whole process,” says Christine Timmer, who runs an English-language Fahrschule in Munich.
Typically, the process goes like this. First, you complete the requisite eye exam and first aid courses (eight hours, available through the Deutsches Rotes Kreuz or Malteser for EUR 25). In addition you will have to provide an eyesight test by an authorized doctor related to driver’s license that is not older than 2 years. Then, with those certificates, your translated license , a recent biometric passport photo, your most recent residence registration form (Meldebescheinigung), and (sometimes) the registration information from your chosen Fahrschule in hand, you apply for your license at the Führerscheinstelle (call first for exact requirements).
It usually takes between four to six weeks to process your application, giving you time to prepare for and take the written and practical exams with your chosen Fahrschule. Practice materials for the written test and the test itself are available in English. You’ll take the driving test in German with your driving instructor and an official examiner. Don’t sweat the German part, though, says Christine. “It’s really not that difficult, if you’re prepared and understand a bit of German. The examiner really doesn’t say a lot.” And when you pass, you get your new license on the spot.
How long you’ll spend preparing for the tests at your Fahrschule depends on your previous driving experience. Christine Timmer’s typical student requires two to six lessons. She charges EUR 51 a lesson, plus EUR 80 for the written test and EUR 150 for the driving test, but rates vary, she cautions. Altogether, then, you can expect to pay around EUR 500.
Worst case scenario
The worst case Führerschein scenario is having to take a full driving course, like young German drivers do. “To get a regular driver’s license ,” Christine explains, “you have to take 14 theory classes and at least 12 driving lessons. Driving schools usually offer them twice a week, so that takes about seven weeks. Depending on how quickly you learn, it can be done in about three months; but it usually takes longer, because of holidays and so forth. You start with the classroom sessions, and then move on to the driving portion, taking them in parallel so you learn the rules and also how to apply them.” How many driving lessons you’ll need to take depends on how quickly you learn. With 12 as the minimum, and 50 on the high end, the full licensing course can cost between EUR 1000-2000.
You can take the course at an English-language driving school like Christine’s, but don’t think it’ll be easy, she warns. “Take your time, start things early. Take it seriously, although you may be annoyed about it. And look for a driving school that has experience with license conversions (if you’re able to exchange license s), because not all of them do.
No more cheaper options
Until 2011 you could fairly easily get a driver’s license from other EU countries. Driver’s license tourism has now been abolished by European law. The important detail is “residence”. You are only supposed to get a license for where you live. The authorities are now thoroughly checking whether or not you really live where you say that you do